About Myanmar

Myanmar (the golden Land), it was called Burma by the British in former times. It is an ancient land that has existed since prehistoric times. The archeological evidences can be seen clearly in places like Bagan, Hanlin, Tagaung, Mandalay, Bago, Pyay and Taungoo, etc…

The amazing pagodas, Temples, shrines and the old monasteries are the most distinctive features of Myanmar. The country is rich in minerals deposits and natural resources, and its art and culture. Furthermore, it’s rich in ethnic diversity, the Buddhist ideals of doing meritorious deeds, donations, tolerance and loving kindness. The Buddhist monks in the saffron robes receiving alms from the donors, smiling and charming people, beautiful scenery, magnificent Inle lake with its leg rowers, silvery beaches and waterfalls, enchanting caves, riverine beauty, and our traditional sports are the beauties of nature of the country.

Myanmar has Gem stones mining in Mogoke in Mandalay division producing world best qualities rubies, sapphires and many other precious stones.

Jade is mining in Kachin State, Sagaing Division and gold can be found in many parts of the country.

So, why not!! Is it worth to have the name golden? It is indeed “The land of the golden Pagodas and Temples”.

Geography

The climate of Myanmar roughly divided into three seasons namely Raining season (June to October), Winter season (November to February) and the Summer season (March to May). Myanmar enjoys a tropical monsoon climate. In Raining season the annual reversal of southwest monsoon wind blowing from the Bay of Bengal. But the climate condition differs from place to place. The average temperature is 60 F in the winter season while in the summer time temperature may rise up 100 F or above. The hottest and the driest months are April and May. In central region temperature sometimes reaches a record height 45 C (113 F).

Climate

The climate of Myanmar roughly divided into three seasons namely Raining season (June to October), Winter season (November to February) and the Summer season (March to May). Myanmar enjoys a tropical monsoon climate. In Raining season the annual reversal of southwest monsoon wind blowing from the Bay of Bengal. But the climate condition differs from place to place. The average temperature is 60 F in the winter season while in the summer time temperature may rise up 100 F or above. The hottest and the driest months are April and May. In central region temperature sometimes reaches a record height 45 C (113 F).

Historical Background

According to the archaeology evidences of Byadalin Cave, one of the world’s oldest stone age civilization was flourishing in Myanmar more than ten thousand years ago.

Originally, Myanmar as a race had moved nomadically in group from Mongolia in the north down to the south and settled in the country.

These nomad known to be Myanmar mixed with ethnic minority such as Pyu, Kanyan and Thet (Pyu is the lost civilization), who were then aboriginal inhabitants of this country.

With the passage of time these mixed race began to live in separate groups. Myanmar was split up into small states many times, in different regions and gradually brought out some regional ethnic groups. In this ways, they formed the eight major nationalities and over 100 minorities.

According to the Glass palace chronicle, the Kingdom of Bagan was started in 108 A.D. But, in 11th centuries Bagan emerged the clear light of history. The great king Anawrahta established the first Myanmar Empire and the political unification was achieved by organizing different states into one kingdom. It was called Bagan Dynasty in which Theravada Buddhism was brought from Thaton kingdom and became a newly establish faith. At the time Myanmar attained the golden age of political unity and many Pagodas and Temples were built between 11 to 13 centuries. Marco Polo was the first noted tourist. In its history, Myanmar was split up into small states many times; but the disintegrated country was sometimes reunified by the powerful kings such as Thabinshwehti, Bayintnaung in 16 century, Alaungphaya founded the last Kongbaung Dynasty in 1752 and was annexed by the British colonialist in 1885.

British made Myanmar

Myanmar became a province of India in 1886, its capital was Yangon ( Rangoon ) and separated from India in 1937.

Between 1942 to 1945, it was in Japanese occupation period.

0n the 4th of January, Myanmar regained independence from Britain. U Nu was the first elected prime minister. Democratic rule was ended when the general Ne Win took over power in 1962.

In 1974 a new constitution was promulgated and Myanmar road to socialism was started with a single party. Ne Win became president of the government and continuing to hold the power until 1988 uprising.

1989-2010 Military government formed the state law and order restoration council. Then the name changed to the state peace and development council. They also changed the name of the country Burma to Myanmar in 1989.

In 2007 anti-government protests occurred in the country and it was led by the Buddhist monks. In the following year in 2008 the most devastated Nargis Cyclone hit and as many as 100,000 people died or went missing in the Ayeyarwaddy delta region. In 2010 pro-democracy leader Aung San Su Kyi was released from under house arrest. She has been placed under house arrest for 15 years of the past 21 years during military government. On 1 April of 2012 she contested in by-election and became a member of parliament.

EU lifts up the sanction over Myanmar

The United stated President Barack Obama visited Myanmar and sanction on Myanmar in most sectors has been released.

Present Government

Myanmar democratic reforms are an ongoing; series of political, economic and administrative reforms in Myanmar undertaken by the military back- up government.

Population

Population is over 52 million with 135 different races.

Administrative Capital

Former military government relocated its administrative area from Yangon to Nay Pyi Taw ( literally means; Royal city of the kings) in 2005. But Yangon still retained Business and commercial city.

Flora & Fauna

Myanmar has thick virgin forests and the world famous teak wood produce from Myanmar. According to the record of forestry department, it has a variety of 300 mammal species, 300 reptiles and about 1000 bird species.

Religion

Buddhism is the main religion of the country and more than 85% of the people are Buddhist. Other religions are Christianity, Muslim, Hinduism and Animism. There are also freedom for all followers of religions. So, different religions can be practiced in Myanmar.

History of Myanmar alphabet

All researchers who had studied the origin and development of the Myanmar script accepted that its source was Brahmin script which flourished in India from about 500 B.C to over 300 A.D.

Myanmar writing system and those employ the Brahmin writing system are basically similar. The first Brahmin script was seen about 500 B.C. It had spread through India in 300 B.C in the reign of king Asoka. It is said that these Indian script descended from Brahmin script spread to Tibet, Srilanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Indonesia in the period of 100 A.D to 800 A.D.

According to stone inscription of Bagan period, Myanmar language has been developed about 1000 years ago. Early Myanmar language developed from Mon of the lower Myanmar.

Myanmar language has an alphabet of 33 consonants and vowels that combined to form syllabic sound.

Myanmar language is official and common language. Over 80% of people speak Myanmar language, the rest including ; Kachin, Kayar, Kayin, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, and Shan speak their own languages.

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